The Battle Fought By Australia’s Soldiers During WW1

By Penny Hoffmann

Through statistics, technology, psychology, citizens reactions, and personal accounts, the reality of World War One is defined. It has been one hundred and four years since its beginning, and throughout those years the truth and of the war in general public conversation has been partially lost.

From April to July 1915, the number of people enlisting to fight in World War One increased exponentially. The monarchy was calling for unification, and patriotism was encouraged as seen in propaganda posters. Too many tried to enlist, thus many were turned back.

The first attempt of legalising conscription was narrowly defeated. Then, after July 1915, enlistment numbers dropped dramatically due to the large scale of casualties from war. This discouraged those initially wanting to enlist and there were less men able to fight because they had died.

Before repatriation, of the 331,000 who served overseas, 61,720 were killed and 155,000 were wounded. Of the 272,000 who returned, 170,000 suffered from wounds or illness from the war. 3,300 returned without arms of limbs.

Then, the second attempt of conscription occurred due to the number of casualties. Australia needed replacements, but conscription was defeated more than the first attempt. 70-80,000 soldiers received a full or part repatriation pension. Over 38,000 ex-servicemen died between 1918 and 1933, and right up to the Second World War, two to three ex-servicemen were dying every day. This is a byproduct of the unhygienic and highly stressful environment in the trenches as their feet were constantly wet, regular sighting of dead or dismembered bodies, the sound of their mates dying, and disease. There are 23,000 missing soldiers.

The war of 1917 resulted in the greatest technological and medical advancements to combat many types of wounds, but specifically head wounds. Because of how quickly someone can die from wounds to such a sensitive area, the medical team were located as close to the war-front as possible.

Teams were efficient with handling approximately twelve severe head wounds during twelve hours on duty that in total, two hundred and twenty to two hundred and fifty patients could be served a day. Confusion, signs of mental and physical exhaustion, acute fears, phobias, amnesia, tremor, deafness, speechlessness, visual defects and others were just some of the other issues the medical team dealt with.

The stressful war environment altered the soldiers for life and reprogrammed many into war machines, even during the repatriation process. Some were more dangerous than others to themselves or other people. Domestic violence, alcohol addictions, suicide or suicidal thoughts, shame, and labels were byproducts of the shift of environment from warzones to normal life, and many of these byproducts were due to the difficult healing process of the transition.

Consulting surgeon Sir William Arbuthnot Lane stated that “nothing was more painful than the sense of loneliness of those mutilated, since these deformities repelled even their wives and children. I understand that many, faced with the horror of the situation, committed suicide.”

An author states that “the peace following a war is worse than the war… when they returned to peace, as when they had gone to war, the soldiers were asked to adapt to accustomed ways. But the war had taught them a new system of values – mateship, the worth of the individual, courage, humor, straightforward action, generosity, determination, integrity and patriotism – which they could not easily apply to peace… it seemed to some that the war in Europe had created ‘a nation within a nation’ in the far antipodes”.

Those who suffered from head injuries and had facial reconstruction arguably felt worse when it came to social stigma; a face is where people look to for communication and feel attraction. Because of this, there were no mirrors in the medical rooms to prevent fainting.

Though not all soldiers faced the same level of difficulty adjusting to their new appearance.

 

James Comey’s Warning To Democrats of Avoiding Socialism Falls on Deaf Ears

Written by Stefan M. Kløvning

Washington D.C. – Former FBI Director James Comey, known for his influence in FBI’s investigation of potential Russian interference in the 2016 election, warned his fellow Democrats on Sunday to avoid Socialism and self-proclaimed Socialists such as Ocasio-Cortez and to rather strive for a “sensible, balanced and ethical leadership.”

Comey was a longtime Republican prior to Trump’s rise and moved over to the Democratic Party under the last election campaign, claiming that the “Republican party has left me, and many others,” in adhering to Trump’s tactics and politics that deviated from what he perceived as “fulfilling the Founders’ design that ‘ambition must … counteract ambition,'” and called for the American people to vote Democrat in the mid-term elections.

Much of Comey’s convictions may be of his own accord, but his milieu appears to have influenced him moving leftwards politically.  After all, his wife is an ardent supporter of Hillary Clinton, along with four of their daughters, who participated in the Women’s March succeeding Trump’s inauguration. This may have influenced his several self-admitted “mistakes” under the 2016 investigation of Hillary Clinton’s private e-mail server she used when she was Secretary of State. It didn’t stop Democrats like Nancy Pelosi, however, from calling Comey the “leading Republican political operative in the country,” for leading the investigation. In fact, he’s been hated by members of both sides of the spectrum after having participated in what has been perceived as a witch-hunt of both candidates for President in 2016. Now he appears to be a never-Trump Democrat, however, like his father, who told CNN in May 2017 that he thought Trump “should be impeached immediately. He’s a very incompetent guy. He’s out of his league. I think the man should be in a home quite honestly, he’s crazy as a hoot.”

Despite the legitimate concerns Comey may now have for the future of the Democratic party and its constituents, knowledge of his background has caused many Democrats to completely disregard his advice as worthless.

For instance, National Security Council Spokesman of President Obama, Tommy Vietor, responded to Comey, commenting on his judgement:

Progressive Democrat candidate for US Congress, Bill Cimbrelo, accused Comey of hypocrisy, along with many other vile accusations:

https://twitter.com/Bill_Cimbrelo/status/1021140418883457030

Dem strategist Zac Petkanas’ response was a tad more insulting:

https://twitter.com/Zac_Petkanas/status/1021142842972999680

Much of the rest falls on deaf ears…

https://twitter.com/SFGayMom/status/1021161398393450496

… but some are still willing to listen.

https://twitter.com/EdKrassen/status/1021132357829644289

According to Rasmussen Reports, only 13% of Americans believe that Socialism is a better economic system than Capitalism, but with Bernie Sanders’ large support during the 2016 primary elections, and Ocasio-Cortez’ victory in the NY primaries, many more Democrats appear to slide over to Socialism or at least view Socialism in a more positive light amid calls for free education, healthcare and housing, often confusing the terms “social democracy” and “Democratic Socialism.” Scandinavian countries, for instance, are often pointed to by supporters of the latter, while those countries, in reality, are social democracies whose welfare is built on the wealth produced by Capitalism.

It’s difficult to say how much opposition Ocasio-Cortez stands before against her Republican adversary Anthony Pappas in the general election on 6 November, considering he ran unopposed for the seat within his party. What appears to be the case, however, is that Socialism is gaining steam among left-wing reactionaries against Trump, along with its political promises for the youth and the poor of what they will supposedly gain by electing its candidates. Referring to the Democrats echo of Ocasio-Cortez’ call to “abolish ICE” and end immigration enforcement, House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) told Breitbart last week that ““I don’t really refer to it as the Democratic Party anymore. This has become the New Socialist Democratic Party,” opining that the party has already fallen to the Socialism of Ocasio-Cortez and Sanders.